Dating origins polyploidy events

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Although this is a continuous process and there are no clear boundaries between each phase, we will loosely define them for the sake of clarity throughout the article.Once individual polyploids are formed, they have to get locally established, meaning that a number of polyploids have undergone successive generations and exist as a viable, independent population, reproductively isolated from their parental taxa.Here, we discuss especially how harsh conditions or periods of climatic change might affect the rate of formation, establishment, persistence and long-term evolutionary success of polyploids in angiosperms.This means that on several different occasions, a newly established polyploid species or population managed to persist long enough to become an evolutionarily successful lineage, in the sense that at least one or more extant species descended from that polyploid ancestor so that we can observe traces of that polyploidy event within the genomes of extant species.

Along this road to evolutionary success, polyploids must overcome several obstacles, to which several genetic and ecological factors are likely to contribute.The question is what determined the evolutionary success of these polyploids, and why did these particular polyploids attain evolutionary success.The process that leads to the evolutionary success of polyploids can be characterized by the following phases (Figure 1): the formation of individual polyploids, followed by their establishment and subsequent persistence, ultimately leading to their long-term evolutionary success.Long-term evolutionary success will be defined here as survival of a polyploid-derived lineage for tens of millions of years, regardless of the number of species it gave rise to Polyploidy can be generally considered to be disadvantageous Despite these various disadvantages and obstacles that polyploids have to overcome, their local establishment and short-term persistence is not such a rare event, and polyploids have managed to attain long-term evolutionary success on some occasions during the evolutionary past of angiosperms.Several articles have reviewed the different ecological and genetic factors regarding the formation and the subsequent establishment and persistence of polyploids.

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