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In sum, despite an impressive number of studies on predictors of retirement and employment at older ages, only few studies investigate complete late life employment histories in the light of adversity at earlier stages of the life course.

Research therefore needs to improve knowledge on employment patterns at older ages and to investigate their determinants.Therefore, studies on the complex interrelations between disadvantages at different stages of the life course, including childhood and adulthood, and labor market involvement at older ages are lacking (Fisher et al., 2016).But at least two shortcomings in research exist: Aside from the above mentioned small number of studies linking early stages of the life course with labor market participation, a second shortcoming refers to the measurement of labor market participation in later life.Foremost, the life course perspective draws attention to specific principles, or life course mechanisms, that shape individual lives (Elder, Johnson, & Crosnoe, 2003; George, 2013; Kuh et al., 2003; Sackmann & Wingens, 2003).One important principle is that studies interested in individual life course need to adopt a holistic perspective, where research not only focuses on single “transitions” (e.g., retiring from paid work), but also on whole “trajectories” (Abbott, 1995; Aisenbrey & Fasang, 2010; Sackmann & Wingens, 2003).

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