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By weight, most of the world's zinc oxide is manufactured via French process.
The direct or American process starts with diverse contaminated zinc composites, such as zinc ores or smelter by-products.
The zinc precursors are reduced (carbothermal reduction) by heating with a source of carbon such as anthracite to produce zinc vapor, which is then oxidized as in the indirect process.
Known p-type dopants include group-I elements Li, Na, K; group-V elements N, P and As; as well as copper and silver.The hexagonal structure has a point group 6 mm (Hermann-Mauguin notation) or C as well as the strong piezoelectricity of Zn O.Because of the polar Zn-O bonds, zinc and oxygen planes are electrically charged.Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula Zn O.Zn O is a white powder that is insoluble in water, and it is widely used as an additive in numerous materials and products including rubbers, plastics, ceramics, glass, cement, lubricants, paints, ointments, adhesives, sealants, pigments, foods, batteries, ferrites, fire retardants, and first-aid tapes.