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Frechen, Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics (LIAG), Geochronology c Germany. [email protected] Hydrology, Stilleweg 2, 30655 Hannover, The papers of this Special Issue give remarkable new results and conclusions on loess from Europe underlining the excel- lence of loess archives for past climate and environment re- constructions from a local and regional perspective and their relationship to a more global interpretation (Frechen 2011 a, b). (2002): The loess profile at Al- bertirsa, Hungary - improvements in loess stratigraphy by lumines- cence dating. The uppermost 46 cm are made up of a colluvial cover layer. The profile is carbonate-free and the organic content ranges be- tween weak to strong humic. The D e -s obtained using the IR 50 from feldspar range from 52.9 ± 1.3 Gy to 423 ± 4 Gy.

Loess is a clastic predominantly silt-sized sediment, which is formed by the accumulation of wind-blown dust. The entire sequence has a silty tex- ture, which is moderately clayey to medium clayey from the middle part of the profile downwards (Tab. The profile Schulwiese has been subdivided vertically using the international nomenclature (IUSS 2006) (Fig. By applying the German soil classifi- cation system (KA5 2005), the vertical sequence was subdi- vided into Ap (0-14 cm) /M-Go (14-46 cm) /a Go (46-72 cm) /f Aa Gr (72-104 cm) /a Gr (104-114 cm) /f Aa a Gr (114-130 cm) /a Gr (130-156 cm) /a Gr (156-175 cm) (Kucz 2006). 3: Bodenkarte von Uelzen (BK50 L2928, Bad Bevensen). The Ap and Bwl, Bw2, Bw3 horizons developed within the loess colluvium (M 30-110 cm). (1991): Systematic thermoluminescence dating of two loess profiles from the middle Rhine area (F. The ob- tained equivalent doses gave uncorrected age estimates be- tween 17.6 ± 1.1 ka and 139 ± 8 ka.

MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION Please upload your manuscript at the on- line submission system at ourjournal site FREQUENCY Four numbers at volume SUBSCRIPTION Free for DEUQUA-Members! The few data available from peat bogs though pro- vide background information on landscape development (Becker 1995, Kirleis 2003, Becker & Urban 2006). Grey shad- ed area shows the location of the Luenburg Heath. (2001): Ubiquity of anomalous fading in K- feldspars and the measurement and correction for it in optical dating. (2003): Towards a pre- diction of long-term anomalous fading of feldspar IRSL. The fading rates are expressed in terms of the per- centage of the decrease of intensity per decade of time (g- value; Aitken, 1985; Auclair, Lamothe & Huot, 2003). 1: Dose rate data from potassium, uranium and thorium content, as measured by gamma spectrometry. 1: Dosimetrische Ergebnisse basierend auf Kalium, Uran und Thorium Gehalt (gemessen mit Gammaspektrometrie). Dose (Gy) Luminescence characteristics and performance tests Figure 4 shows the dose response curves and the decay curves for the IR 50 and the p IRIR 225 for the stratigraphically oldest samples Wei6 (Fig. The natural IR 50 has about 10-15% lower signal intensity than the natural p IRIR 225 .

Prices for stand- ing order: single number 27,- Euro; double number 54,- Euro; plus shipping costs. Please subscribe to thejournal at the pub- lisher Geozon Science Media. This study of a Gleysol/Colluvisol developed in a brook valley and of a Colluvisol/stagnic Luvisol sequence developed on sandy loess at higher topographic elevation near the vil- E&G/Vol. Hatched area marks the northern most distribution of loess. 1 = Lower Rhine Area; 2 = Recklinghausen; 3, 4 = Soester horde; 5 = Milnster; 6 = Bersenbriick; 7 = Damme; 8 = Wehden; 9 = Wunstorf Rehurg; 10 = Goldenstedt; 11 = Syke; 12 = Apensen; 13 = Harburg; 14 = Garlsdorf; 15 = Uelzen, Bevensen; 16 = Clenze; 17 = Bergen, Jettebruch; 18 = Wittingen; 19 = Klotze; 20 = Peine, Braunschweig; 21 = Helmstedt; 22 = Haldensleben; 23 = Magdeburg. 1: Lage von Seedorf (Landkreis Uelzen) in Niedersachsen und Verbreitung von Loss und Sandloss in Nord-Deutschland. 01 /© Authors / Creative Commons Attribution License E 10.491° °co L 00 o CO " 10 E 10.506 I E10.521 c _| O) o 00 " ID o " b oo oo " b CD o E 10.491° E 10.506° E 10.521° E 10.536° Fig. - Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 38: 1093-1106. The g-values were calculated according to Huntley & Lamothe (2001) using the same integration limits as for the De calcu- lation. Cosmic dose rate IRSL dose rate Sample Uranium (ppm) Thorium (ppm) Potassium (%) (Gy/ka) (Gy/ka) Wei 1 3.03 ± 0.03 10.09 ±0.06 1.23 ±0.01 0.19 ±0.02 3.00 ±0.16 Wei 2 3.40 ± 0.03 11.24 ±0.06 1.38 ±0.01 0.18 ±0.02 3.32 ±0.18 Wei 3 3.24 ± 0.02 11.41 ±0.06 1.30 ±0.01 0.14 ±0.01 3.18 ±0.17 Wei 4 2.76 ± 0.02 9.38 ± 0.05 1.18 ± 0.01 0.13 ±0.01 2.72 ±0.15 Wei 5 2.80 ± 0.03 11.12 ±0.06 1.31 ±0.01 0.12 ±0.01 3.01 ±0.16 Wei 6 3.33 ± 0.03 13.55 ±0.06 1.43 ±0.01 0.09 ±0.01 3.45 ±0.18 Wei 7 2.92 ± 0.03 10.73 ±0.06 1.30 ±0.01 0.06 ±0.01 2.94 ±0.16 E&G/Vol. The growth curves for the p IRIR 225 lies above the curve for the IR 50 for all samples.

See full list and special prices of available numbers on page 207. (1990): Loess is not just the accumulation of dust. Sandlbssgebiete sind durch Kreuzschraffur markiert. 1 = Niederrhein; 2 = Recklinghausen; 3,4 = Soester Borde; 5 = Milnster; 6 = Ber- senbriick; 7 = Damme; 8 = Wehden; 9 = Wunstorf, Rehurg; 10 = Goldenstedt; 11 = Syke; 12 = Apensen; 13 = Harburg; 14 = Garlsdorf; 15 = Uelzen, Bevensen; 16 = Clenze; 17 = Bergen, Jettebruch; 18 = Wittingen; 19 = Klotze; 20 = Peine, Braunschweig; 21 = Helmstedt; 22 = Haldensleben; 23 = Magdeburg E&G/Vol. The prevailing soil types in the floodplains are Gley- sols developed on alluvial deposits and Histosols that are mainly used as pasture, and stagnic Luvisols that are wide- spread at higher elevations and support arable agriculture (Fig. The upper layers/horizons of the soils in both topo- graphic positions are characterized by colluvial cover de- posits. 4a and b) confirming the results of Buylaert et al. Recycling ratios for the samples range from 0.98 ± 0.03 to 1.01 ± 0.003 for the IR 50 and from 0.91 ± 0.04 to 0.99 ± 0.003 for the p IRIR 225 . To test the applicability of the post-IR IRSL protocol using a stimulation temperature of 225°C, the dose recovery ratio was measured for all samples (Murray & Wintle, 2003). B£ Weil Wei2 Wei3 We H Wei S Wei6 Wei7 Sample ID Fig.5: Dose recovery test (a) and the residual doses (b)for the IR 50 and the p IRIR 225 signal for all samples. If the SAR protocol is suitable, the meas- ured to given dose ratio should be close to 1. 5a shows the results of the dose recovery test for all samples for the IR 50 and the p IRIR 225 .

49 [0]345-55 22 183 E-Mail: tausch [at] bibliothek.REORDER Reorders are possible at the publishing house. - Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie, Neu Folge Supplementband 98, Berlin. (1995): The nature, origin and accumulation of loess.- Quaternary Science Reviews, 14: 653-667. Die schraffierte Flache markiert die nordlichste Verbreitung von Loss in Deutschland. 2 Materials and methods 2.1 Description of the soils of the studied sites Two sites have been selected for in-depth studies of their genetic development, which differ strongly in topography and hydrological conditions as well as in the type of land use. (1988): Optical dat- ing of quartz and feldspar extracts. The p IRIR 225 of all the measured samples is much brighter (-10- 15%) than for the IR 50 (inlay of Fig. der to confirm that the protocol is able to recover a known dose successfully.

A tremendous number of papers have been pub- lished since then, focusing on the formation of loess and on loess/palaeosol sequences as archives of climate and en- vironment change (e.g. Much effort was put into the setting up of regional and local loess stratigraphies and their correlation (Kukla 1970, 1975, 1977). The soil organic matter (SOM) has been calculated as C% * 1.72. 01 /© Authors / Creative Commons Attribution License I Soil {40-120 cm humic) | Forest Ftuvial or kolluvial accumulation Soil O TJ 1= I ■o 1.2 - 1.0 S 08 0.6 O pl R1R 2 2s i S f • « * ' i 75% of the total lake sediment to be locally-derived old material in order to give a dose indistinguishable from field saturation today. According to Wintle & Murray (2006) it is only possible to obtain re- liable equivalent doses (D e ) up to a dose value of 2D and therefore it is important to test if the equivalent dose values exceed 2D .

But even the chronostratigraphical position of the last interglacial soil correlating to marine isotope sub- stage 5e has been a matter of debate, owing to the lack of robust and reliable numerical dating, as summarized for example in Zoller et al. All analyses were carried out at Leuphana University Liineburg, Germa- ny. 2.3.1 Optically stimulated luminescence [OSL] dating OSL is one of the dosimetric dating methods and is an ex- cellent tool for determining the depositional time of sedi- ments. Such a large catchment input to a maar lake seems very unlikely. (2007): Luminescence dating of old (70 ka) Chi- nese loess: a comparison of single-aliquot OSL and IRSL techniques. Following this suggestion it is possible to meas- ure D e values up to about -900 Gy for our material. The g-values range from 2.9 ± 0.3%/ decade to 3.2 ± 0.2%/decade, with an average of 3.01 ± 0.04%/ decade (n = 7) for the IR 50 and from 1.6 ± 0.3%/decade to 2.0 ± 0.4%/decade, with an average of 1.8 ± 0.1%/decade (n = 7) for the p IRIR 225 indicating that the p IRIR 225 fades -40% less than the IR 50 . Fading corrections use the methods proposed in Huntley & Lamothe (2001).

49 [0J3834-80 40 80 E-Mail: info [at] Printed in Germany on 100% recycled paper climate neutral produced COVER PHOTO Juliane Herrmann [LIAG] Aufschlul S Sutto in Nordungarn RIGHTS Copyright for articles by the authors LICENSE Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 1 and 2), soil colour was determined by Munsell soil colour charts. 2 and 4) (53.08°N, 10.52°E, 38 m a.s.l.) is located on a slip-off slope in a floodplain of a small watercourse close to the village of Seed- orf in the western part of the Liineburg Heath. This dose was then measured in the same manner as the equivalent dose in or- 120 E&G/Vol. This data indicates the applicability of the post-IR IRSL protocol. 9 ± 1.3 Gy to 14.9 ± 2.1 Gy, with a mean of 12.7 ± 0.5 Gy (n = 7) for p IRIR 225 .

Org/licenses/by/3.0/ E&G Quaternary Science Journal Volume 60 / Number 1 / 2011 / 3-5 / DOI 10.3285/eg.6D.1.0D SCIENCE MEDIA ISSN 0424-7116 Loess in Europe Guest Editorial Manfred Frechen Address of author: M. The sequence consists of 1.75 m thick silty, clayey soil-sediment with fluvic and gleyic features. To confirm that the IRSL and the post-IR IRSL are bleachable by natural daylight we exposed three aliquots per sample for four hours to a Honle SOL2 solar simulator and then measured the apparent dose in the usual manner. Equivalent Dose (D e ), fading rates and age estimates In Table 3 the equivalent doses, dose recovery results, re- sidual doses, g-values and the resulting luminescence ages, both uncorrected as well as fading corrected, are summa- rized for all samples.

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